Over 560 ISAF troops die in Afghan war in 2011
AFP, 31 December 2011
Article on violence in Afghanistan ends by quoting AAN’s Fabrizio Foschini: “The hope is that as foreign troops hand security to Afghan forces fewer local people will become radicalised. And the insurgents won’t kill as many civilians collaterally by using highly destructive tactics to target foreigners.”
Afghanistan will be ‘up-for-grabs’ in hostile neighborhood after 2014
Afghanistan Headline Examiner, 30 December 2011
The website quotes large parts of Akmal Dawi’s AAN guest blog on Afghanistan’s post-2014 regional relations, without mentioning the source directly (but at least putting down the link).
Le manovre di Hamid Karzai per creare una società civile asservita al suo governo
il manifesto, 30 December 2011
The Italian newspaper reports that the Afghan government attempts at controlling the Independent Human Rights Commission, and quotes AAN’s Fabrizio Foschini saying that the replacement of the commissioners may aim at developing a ‘pro-government civil society’.
Kabul’s Stealth Attack on Human Rights
New York Times, 27 December 2011
Op-ed by human rights worker (and AAN member) Patti Gossman on the dismissal of three AIHRC commissioners which she sees as ‘intended not only to silence a critic but bury the truth about the crimes of the past’. She urges ‘the Obama administration and its European allies [to] raise concerns immediately with the Karzai government about the termination of [their] appointments’ and to ‘encourage and welcome human rights documentation that seeks to bring to light the truth about the past, including via the commission’s yet-to- be-published [mapping] report’.
Kabul’s Stealth Attack on Human Rights
Patricia Gossman / New York Times
Patricia Gossman discusses President Karzai’s decision to remove some of the Commissioners from the AIHRC, and its consequences for the expected release of the AIHRC’s report documenting war crimes in Afghanistan during the period 1979-2001.
Karsai schasst drei Menschenrechtler
taz (Berlin), 24 December 2011
AAN’s Thomas Ruttig reports the firing of three human rights commissioners and the background which Afghan civil society activists call the ‘begin of a crackdown on democracy’ (in German).
Afghan rights campaigner dropped from commission
AFP, 23 December 2011
The article quotes Fabrizio Foschini saying that the removal of the AIHRC commissioners will be perceived negatively by the international community.
Deutscher Afghanistan-Einsatz: Zehn vertane Jahre
Spiegel online, 22 December 2011
In an article bringing together some analysts opinions, AAN’s Thomas Ruttig is also quoted (although the quote in the headline is not from him): Asked about Germany’s successes in Afghanistan, Thomas points to the 2011 Bonn conference with which it took responsibility for the ensuing peace process and that Germany’s involvement in Afghanistan was supported by almost all political parties which was the right thing to do. The ‘how’ of the Bonn implementation, however, was the problem – which shows that successes and failures are closely linked to each other. Thomas pointed to the lack of a long-strategy, the military side winning the upper hand over the civilian one and the failure to support democratic parties for which Germany was particularly well positioned for its, by Afghans, supposed neutrality.
Uncertain endgame in Afghanistan
New Straits Times, 21 December 2011
Columnist quotes AAN report “The international community’s engagement in Afghanistan beyond 2014”: “The US’s ‘fight, talk, build’ approach is often presented as being in support of a political solution, but it is more likely to be counterproductive in the context of an insurgency that has deep roots in (parts of) Afghan society, is more than a terrorist fringe group, and whose persecution leads to continuous ‘collateral damage’.”
ABC Australia, 18 December 2011
Read the transcript of a radio feature about mining in Afghanistan, with a lot of interesting detail and snippets from an interview with AAN’s Thomas Ruttig
Afghanistan denies deal with Taleban over schools
Khaleej Times / AFP, 17 December 2011
The Afghan government on Saturday denied making a deal with the Taleban agreeing a more conservative curriculum and more mullahs as teachers in return for an end to attacks on schools. Responding to a report released by the Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN), the Afghan ministry of education said it would not cut any deal which could jeopardise the school system.
Children of the Taliban
Dawn, 17 December 2011
Article discussing the education policies of the Pakistani Taleban open with a brief reference to AAN’s recent report.
‘Der Westen unterstützt eine korrupte Regierung’
ARD (online), 15 December 2011
An interview with AAN’s Thomas Ruttig about successes and mistakes of the West in Afghanistan, on the occasion of the German parliament debating the extension of the Bundeswehr mandate (in German and under a rather simplistic headline).
AAN in parliament: Speech of MdB Frithjof Schmidt in the German Bundestag
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen website, 15 December 2011
AAN’s report ‘A Knock on the Door: 22 Months of ISAF Press Releases’, authored by Alex Strick and felix Kuehn, has been mentioned in today’s Afghanistan debate in the German Bundestag by the Greens’ Frithjof Schmidt, on the unreliability of casualty figures in US kill-or-capture operations (full speech, in German).
La guerra delle ragazze combattuta sui banchi di scuola
il manifesto, 15 December 2011
The Italian daily picks up AAN’s latest report, ‘The Battle for the Schools. The Taleban and State Education’ by Antonio Giustozzi and Claudio Franco. It says that ‘[i]l rapporto, reso pubblico ieri, si basa su una serie di interviste in 10 delle 34 province afghane con interlocutori diversi – dagli insegnanti agli anziani di villaggio passando per i comandanti locali talebani – e ricorda la centralità delle controversie sull’educazione nei conflitti afghani, passati e presenti.’
Debatte um Afghanistan-Mandat
ARD radio, 15 December 2011
AAN’s report ‘A Knock on the Door: 22 Months of ISAF Press Releases’, authored by Alex Strick and felix Kuehn, has been mentioned in today’s Afghanistan debate in the German Bundestag by the Greens’ Frithjof Schmidt, on the unreliability of casualty figures in US kill-or-capture operations (listen to an audio, in German).
Lehren statt töten: Taliban wollen Widerstand gegen Mädchen-Schulen aufgeben (not online)
Süddeutsche Zeitung, 14 December 2011
Subscribers only, via e-paper.
Afghan analysts say Taleban stop attacks on schools
Arzu TV (Dari), 14 December 2011
Taleban have agreed to stop their attacks on schools. A report released by Afghan Analysts’ Network says that the Taleban made this move following an increase in religious subjects on the training curriculums of the schools and the employment of mullahs as teachers. However, the Afghan Ministry of Education has not made any obvious remarks but emphasized that the stance of the Afghan Ministry of Education is clear and that in order improve [the situation] they are ready to hold any kinds of talks.
Kabul ‘agreed deal with Taliban’ to end attacks on schools, report reveals
Guardian (online), 13 December 2011
The Gurdian’s Julian Borger picks up AAN’s latest report authored by Antonio Giustozzi and Claudio Franco about the Taleban’ s education policy: The authors say that ‘contacts between the Afghan education ministry and the Taliban over schools date back four years, but were discontinued in 2007, allegedly because of US opposition. However, local deals accelerated after the Taliban declared in 2009 that they would end their policy of attacking state schools in return for changes in the curriculum. According to the report by Antonio Giustozzi and Claudio Franco, the education ministry restarted negotations “at the top level to allow for more radical change”. ‘
El Gobierno afgano pactó con los talibán no atentar contra escuelas a cambio de una enseñanza más conservadora
El Razon, 13 December 2011
The Spanish daily picks up AAN’s latest report on the Taleban and their approach to education.
Wie weiter am Hindukusch? Afghanistan nach der Bonner Außenministerkonferenz
Inforadio Berlin-Brandenburg, 11 December 2011
Listen to 60 minutes of discussion with AAN’s Thomas Ruttig, German FO’s Philipp Ackermann and Boell Kabul’s Bente Scheller debating Afghanistan’s perspectives by 2014 and beyond (in German, also available as podcast).
Bonn sees no breakthrough
The Hindu/Gulf Today, 10 December 2011
The Hindu’s chief commentator Praveen Swami mulls over Bonn 2 and negotiations with the Taleban, using some information from an AAn blog written by Thomas Ruttig about Ibrahim Omari (Haqqani).
Afghan Local Police: A Threat To Civilian Security?
e-Ariana, 9 December 2011
Article quotes AAN’s ALP study, which was released in May 2010: A study by the Afghan Analysts Network stated that where such militias were successful, “was usually in large part – though not exclusively – due to their close relations with adequately trained and experienced international military forces”. This past placebo of success completely diverted attention from the need for regular policing.
Sectarianism in Afghanistan
The Daily Organ, 9 December 2011
Blogger comments: These external insurgents – a term that is seemingly paradoxical – threaten the delicate situation in Kabul. According to Martine Van Bijlert, co-director of the Afghanistan Analysts Network, the attack: ‘looks designed to provoke sectarian or ethnic tensions.’
Kabul beschuldigt Pakistans Geheimdienst
Süddeutsche Zeitung, 8 December 2012
The article quotes Afghan officials who see Pakistan behind the Ashura bomb attacks but also quotes AAN’s Thomas Ruttig saying that there is no ‘waterproof’ indication yet who is behind the attack.
Does the US military want Afghanistan to get even nastier?
Guardian, 8 December 2011
In a discussion whether it is NATO tactics to provoke the Taleban into ever more brutal actions, AAN’s Kate Clark is quoted as saying: In Paktia province, the researcher Kate Clark reports that the Taliban’s far-from-perfect court system has broken down. Whereas in the past suspected “spies” would get a trial, ultimately sparing some, today an increasingly neurotic local insurgency moves straight to the throat-slitting stage when its suspicions are aroused.
Nuk do të ketë negociata me talibanët – qeveria afgane ndryshon strategjinë e saj
Gazeta Shqiptare Online, 8 December 2011
Comments on the Bonn conference by AAN’s Martine van Bijlert: Dhe ato shpresonin që kjo do të arrihej deri në konferencën e Afganistanit që do të zhvillojë punimet në fillim të dhjetorit në Bonn të Gjermanisë. Kështu shprehet Martine Van Bijlert nga Rrjeti i Analistëve të Afganistanit: “Dëshirohet që në këtë konferencë të tregohet diçka. Pa marrë parasysh se çfarë. Ndonjë përparim në sferën politike.”
Risque de tensions religieuses après des attaques antichiites
L’Orient-Le Jour, 7 December 2011
Selon Kate Clark, chercheuse de l’Afghanistan Analyst Network (AAN), un centre de recherche installé à Kaboul, « les attentats semblent avoir été conçus … (subscribers only)
Afghan attacks raise sectarian fears
AFP, 7 December 2011
The news agency quotes from Kate Clark’s AAN blog; ‘”The attacks looked designed to intentionally spark ethnic and sectarian violence but they could also galvanise resistance against what is seen as outside efforts to further disrupt Afghanistan’s already besieged relations,” wrote Kate Clark of Kabul think-tank the Afghanistan Analysts Network. “In order to understand the longer-term implications of (the) killings, we need to know who was behind the attack, what the intended message was and who the message was aimed at. “And we can only hope that these were one-off attacks, never to be repeated.'”
Asciende a 62 los muertos y a 135 heridos en dos atentados en Afganistán
El Pais (Cali, Colombia), 7 December 2011
AAN’s Fabrizio Foschini is quoted here on the dual attack on Shia shrines in Afghanistan: “Dudo mucho que esto haya sido obra de los talibanes porque eso rompería el discurso nacionalista que quieren proyectar”, añadió este miembro residente en Kabul del “think tank” -laboratorio de ideas- Afghan Analyst Network.
Bombings trigger talks with Pakistan
UPI, 7 December 2011
The news agency quotes AAN’s Kate Clark (from the Wall Street Journal) on the dual bombings against Shia shrines in Afghanistan: ‘This is new. ‘It doesn’t fit into anyone’s traditional mode of operation.’
From bad to worse
The AfPakChannel, 6 December 2011
In his assessment of the Ashura attacksin Afghanistan, Anand Gopal refers to Kate Clark’s AAN report ‘Calling the Taliban to account’.
Kabul shrine attack: the start of sectarianism in Afghanistan?
The Guardian, 6 December 2011
Kate Clark on the Ashura attacks: “Afghanistan has been at war for 30 years and terrible things have happened, but one of the things that Afghans have been spared generally has been what appears to be this kind of very targeted sectarian attack,”
62 muertos y 135 heridos en dos atentados contra chiíes en Afganistán
El Economista/EFE, 6 December 2011
Fabrizio Foschini is quoted (in Spanish): The attack on Shi’a pilgrims at the Ashura celebrations in Kabul does not fit with the usual Taleban modus operandi and their new emphasis on a ‘nationalist’ propaganda.
Bomb Blasts Hit Kabul
The Diplomat (India), 6 December 2011
Martine van Bijlert of the Afghan Analysts Network, a Kabul-based independent policy research organization, says that the [Ashura] attacks are “aimed at destabilizing Afghanistan and spoiling relationship in a way it has not been done before.”
Søvndal vildleder om Afghanistan
Danmarks Radio, 6 December 2011
AAN’s Fabrizio Foschini is quoted here: – De afghanske sikkerhedsstyrker har ansvaret for 20-25 procent af den afghanske befolknings sikkerhed – altså ikke 50 procent, siger Fabrizio Foschini, politisk analytiker hos det afghanske analyse netværk i Kabul.
At least 55 dead in Kabul suicide attack on Shia pilgrims
The Guardian, 6 December 2011
The Taliban have stretched credulity in the past by denying responsibility for attacks that have killed large numbers of civilians and outraged public opinion. But Martine van Bijlert, co-director of the Afghanistan Analysts Network, said this time the denial seemed plausible. “It doesn’t fit with what they have done in the past, unless it turns out that they, or a group or them, have quite fundamentally changed,” she said. “What is clear is that this is a new development in Afghanistan, It is not part of the fault lines of the conflict that we are aware of. It looks designed to provoke sectarian or ethnic tensions.”
Dois atentados contra xiitas no Afeganistão deixam 62 mortos e 135 …
Terra Brasil, 6 December 2011
AAN’s Fabrizio Foschini is quoted here on the dual attack on Shia shrines in Afghanistan.
59 dead in Afghan shrine blasts on Shiite holy day
AFP, 6 December 2011
The news agency quotes from an AAN blog written by Kate Clark: ‘The attacks looked designed to intentionally spark ethnic and sectarian violence but they could also galvanise resistance against what is seen as outside efforts to further disrupt Afghanistan’s already besieged relations. In order to understand the longer-term implications of (the) killings, we need to know who was behind the attack, what the intended message was and who the message was aimed at. And we can only hope that these were one-off attacks, never to be repeated.’
Attack on shrine signals new nexus of Afghan strife
CNN, 6 December 2011
AAN’s Kate Clark described the Kabul attack on a Shia shrine as ‘a real shock. […] Whatever else has happened in the past 30 years we haven’t had this sort of sectarian attack aimed at killing lots of people,’ she told CNN by phone from the Afghan capital.
Bombeangrep rammet afghanske sjiamuslimer
Bergens Tidende (Norway), 6 December 2011
AAN’s Kate Clark about the double bomb attacks against Shia shrines in Afghanistan: ‘Afghanistan har vært i krig i 30 år, og forferdelige ting har skjedd. Men afghanerne har generelt vært spart for den slags målrettede sekteriske angrep, som dette synes å være. Vi vet ikke hvem som sto bak, og det er farlig å konkludere for tidlig. Men dersom det var Taliban, markerer dette noe svært alvorlig, farlig og bekymringsfullt, sier hun.’
Dutzende Tote bei Anschlägen auf Pilger in Afghanistan
Reuters Deutschland, 6 December 2011
AAN’s Kate Clark about the double bomb attacks against Shia shrines in Afghanistan (in German): ‘In Afghanistan war 30 Jahre Krieg und es sind furchtbare Dinge passiert’, sagte Kate Clark vom Afghanistan Analysts Network. Religiös motivierte Anschlage dieses Ausmaßes habe es aber nicht gegeben. Es sei nicht bekannt, wer hinter dem Anschlag stecke, ergänzte Clark. Wenn es doch die Taliban gewesen seien, sei es dies eine sehr ernste, gefährliche und besorgniserregende Entwicklung..
Bombs Explode in Afghanistan, While Seats Go Empty in Bonn
Time (blog), 6 December 2011
Aryn Baker quotes one of the strongest messages of Afghan civil society from Thomas Ruttig’s AAN blog from Bonn2.
“Maak ‘Bonn’ niet tot een vaarwel aan de Afghanen” (Don’t let Bonn be goodbye)
Reformatorisch Dagblad, 5 December 2011
Article (in Dutch) discusses AAN’s latest policy paper “The International Community’s Engagement in Afghanistan beyond 2014”.
Mit den Soldaten geht das Geld
Neues Deutschland, 5 December 2011
AAN’s Thomas Ruttig says in this article that the Bonn 2 conference represents the last flare-up of international attention for Afghanistan. It remains doubtful whether the promises that will be made will translate into financial commitments. He adds that in Kabul the cynical word ‘decent interval’ makes the round, meaning that the country needs to remain stable for a while after the 2014 withdrawal so that any subsequent collapse cannot be blamed on it.
Afghanistan-Experte hält eine Einbindung der Taliban für möglich
Deutschlandradio, 5 December 2011
An interview with AAN’s Thomas Ruttig about the chances of including the Taleban into a political settlement (in German).
Die Zukunft Afghanistans: Auf der Spur des Scheiterns
Der Standard (Vienna), 5 December 2011
“Das Ziel, einen Rechtsstaat zu errichten, ist meiner Ansicht nach völlig aus dem Ruder gelaufen.” Der afghanischen Bevölkerung wäre ob der Situation nach 2014 “angst und bange”, sagt Ruttig im Gespräch mit derStandard.at. “Es wird befürchtet, dass noch einmal so etwas kommt wie das was das Land in den letzten 20, 30 Jahren zuvor bereits erlebt hat.”
Viel Aufwand, wenig Ertrag
Handelsblatt, 5 December 2011
The German daily quotes AAN’s Thomas Ruttig as saying that ‘beyond symbolic declarations of support that are under financial caveats, not much concrete outcomes can be expected’. And that this is less than the organisers and the people of Afghanistan had expected.
Pondering Afghanistan’s future after 2014
ABC Australia, 5 December 2011
An audio of an interview of AAN’s Thomas Ruttig with the Australian radio.
Ingen udsigt til fred i Afghanistan (not online)
Politiken (Denmark), 5 December 2011
An article on the upcoming Bonn 2 conference and chances for a political solution with the Taleban, with longer quotes from AAN’s Thomas Ruttig
Afghanistans Zukunft in der Schwebe (video)
AFP, 5 December 2011
Video on Afghanistan’s future features AAN analysts Gran Hewad and Martine van Bijlert (dubbed in German).
Power Plays in Afghanistan: Laying the Groundwork for Civil War
Der Spiegel, 5 December 2011
While the Bonn conference on Afghanistan aimed to paint an optimistic future for the country, its inhabitants have no illusions, reports Christoph Reuter from Khanabad, and quotes AAN’ Thomas Ruttig: That the ANSF have a ‘loyalty’ problem and that ‘what we are now seeing is an uncontrolled proliferation of competing militias, as well as oversized armed forces whose loyalties tend to lie with their former commanders rather than the Kabul government — and with nothing that could hold them together, especially not after a withdrawal of the Western troops. This is a recipe for civil war.’
Die Bonner Afghanistan-Konferenz macht Hilfe von Reformen abhängig
Domradio (Köln), 5 December 2011
The online report of the local German radio station quotes AAN’s Thomas Ruttig on the outcome of the Bonn 2 conference: Es sei zwar wichtig, die afghanische Regierung zu Fortschritten zu verpflichten, sagt Thomas Ruttig vom „Afghanistan Analyst Network“: „Solche Zusagen hat sie aber bisher auf jeder Konferenz gemacht, und zugleich ist die Reformbereitschaft eher gesunken.“
Guter Wille für Afghanistan
Rheinische Post (Düsseldorf), 5 December 2011
The German daily quotes AAN’s Thomas Ruttig on hopes about a Taleban representation at the Bonn 2 conference: ‘Wenn die Pakistani nicht kommen, können die Taliban auch nicht kommen’.
Experte: Ohne Unterstützung droht der Zusammenbruch Afghanistans
dpa/Tiroler Tageszeitung, 4 Deecember 2011
The Austrian daily has the full (short) dpa interview with AAN’s Thomas Ruttig on the eve of the Bonn 2 conference (in German) in which he pledges a continuation of substantial aid to Afghanistan beyond 2014 in order to prevent a breakdown of the state institutions.
Hopes Dim for Bonn Meeting on Afghanistan
Wall Street Journal, 4 December 2011
Pakistan’s decision to boycott the Bonn gathering made it impossible for any potential Taliban-linked figures to participate, said Thomas Ruttig, senior analyst at the Kabul-based Afghanistan Analyst Network: ‘If the Pakistanis are not going, the Taliban cannot come.’
Afghanistan torn between internal and foreign interests
Voice of Russia
Transcript of a radio interview with “Mrs. Bilet” on the expectations regarding the Bonn conference, Pakistan’s non-participation and US future plans.
Commentary on the Bonn conference (video)
AFP, 4 December 2011
Interview with AAN’s Martine van Bijlert, summarised as: An analyst says [the Bonn conference]’s main goal is to “send the message that things are on track” and admits it was “way too early” to have the Taliban attend the conference.
Afghan delegates thrash out concerns ahead of conference
Deutsche Welle, 4 December 2011
AAN’s Thomas Ruttig is quoted here as saying: ‘I think the Afghan guests, while very polite, could have put forward their demands a bit more decisively. If you look closely, you notice that the importance of issues here is significantly different from those issues normally administered by the government.’
100 Delegationen entwerfen Pläne für die Zukunft
Tagesspiegel (Berlin), 3 December 2011
Ulrike Scheffer looks at the upcoming Afghanistan conference in Bonn (Bonn 2) adn quotes, amongst others, AAN’s Thomas Ruttig, about the Taleban ‘exploring new ways’ (being more open on education), and about Western politicians talking up an already dire situation: ‘In the provinzes, a civil war is already ongoing.’
Afghanistan-Konferenz – Eingeständnis des Scheiterns?
NDR (German radio), 3 December 2011
Podcast of an interview with AAN’s Thomas Ruttig in the run-up to the Bonn 2 conference.
Why Germany is interested in hosting Afghanistan conferences? (in Dari)
Voice of America, 3 December 2011
A transcribed interview (in Dari) with AAN’s Thomas Ruttig reports about why Germany hosted Bonn 1, German-Afghan relations and how Bonn 1 was implemented.
Im Notfall hilft auch Schönreden
ARD Tagesschau (German TV), 3 December 2011
AAN’s Kate Clark about the post-withdrawal Afghanistan: If there is no political solution, the continuation of a war on the current level would be the best-case scenario – with the Afghan government controlling the urban centres and the Taleban parts of the rural regions. Teile der ländlichen Gegenden’.
Der Geist von Bonn
Tagesspiegel (Berlin), 3 December 2011
The Berlin-based daily quotes AAN’s Thomas Ruttig as saying (at a recent conference in Berlin) that the Taleban have changed their position and do not oppose girls education in general.
Ruttig: Entwicklungshilfe beibehalten
ZDF heute (German TV), 3 December 2011
In the context of the international financial crisis and otherurgent problems, Afghanistan is threatened by a drop of aid money’ AAN’s Thomas Ruttig is quoted in the german TV’s news, and adds that he would wish the German government kept the current level of its development cooperation. He adds that in order to strengthen stability in Afghanistan, the democratic ‘middle ground’ needs to be bolstered (in German).
Afghanistan: what has been achieved over the ten years?
The Voice of Russia, 2 December 2011
Transcript of radio interview, among others with AAN’s Martine van Bijlert.
Die Lage vor Bonn – redet der Westen Afghanistan schön?
Saarländischer Rundfunk (SR2), 2 December 2011
Download a podcast of AAN’s Thomas Ruttig (part 2 in the file) talking about approaches and expectations to the Bonn 2 conference (in German).
Islamabad rejects Afghan plea to attend conference
Khaleej Times, 1 December 2011
AAN’s Fabrizio Foschini on Pakistan’s refusal to attend the upcoming Bonn conference: ‘I think something could still be done even without Pakistan because it was never going to be focused only on the Taleban and Pakistan.’
Die Gemäßigten schweigen
Freitag (Germany), 1 December 2011
In this article (above is the headline from the print issue, the one on the website – ‘Taliban im Glück’, ‘The Lucky Taleban’, is nonsense because they do not ‘decide about peace’ alone in Afghanistan – about the upcoming Bonn 2 conference, AAN’s Thomas Ruttig argues that the killing of Prof Rabbani is not necessarily a sign that a political solution with the Taleban is impossible: It is the current conditions that are unfavourable but skilled diplomacy might be able to change them.
Nicht ohne meine Mudschahedin
Frankfurter Allgemeine, 1 December 2011
Christoph Ehrhardt’s large look back at the ten years since Bonn 1, how Afghanistan’s hope was destroyed by the warlords being reinstalled. he extensively quotes AAN’s Thomas Ruttig on his experience during the Emergency Loya Jirga and beyond.
This article was last updated on 9 Mar 2020